Go标准库:14---sort包(排序切片和用户自定义数据集)

一、包概述

import "sort"
  • sort包提供了排序切片和用户自定义数据集的函数

演示案例

  • Example:
package sort_test
import (
    "fmt"
    "sort"
)
type Person struct {
    Name string
    Age  int
}
func (p Person) String() string {
    return fmt.Sprintf("%s: %d", p.Name, p.Age)
}
// ByAge implements sort.Interface for []Person based on
// the Age field.
type ByAge []Person
func (a ByAge) Len() int           { return len(a) }
func (a ByAge) Swap(i, j int)      { a[i], a[j] = a[j], a[i] }
func (a ByAge) Less(i, j int) bool { return a[i].Age < a[j].Age }
func Example() {
    people := []Person{
        {"Bob", 31},
        {"John", 42},
        {"Michael", 17},
        {"Jenny", 26},
    }
    fmt.Println(people)
    sort.Sort(ByAge(people))
    fmt.Println(people)
    // Output:
    // [Bob: 31 John: 42 Michael: 17 Jenny: 26]
    // [Michael: 17 Jenny: 26 Bob: 31 John: 42]
}
  • Example (SortKeys):
package sort_test
import (
    "fmt"
    "sort"
)
// A couple of type definitions to make the units clear.
type earthMass float64
type au float64
// A Planet defines the properties of a solar system object.
type Planet struct {
    name     string
    mass     earthMass
    distance au
}
// By is the type of a "less" function that defines the ordering of its Planet arguments.
type By func(p1, p2 *Planet) bool
// Sort is a method on the function type, By, that sorts the argument slice according to the function.
func (by By) Sort(planets []Planet) {
    ps := &planetSorter{
        planets: planets,
        by:      by, // The Sort method's receiver is the function (closure) that defines the sort order.
    }
    sort.Sort(ps)
}
// planetSorter joins a By function and a slice of Planets to be sorted.
type planetSorter struct {
    planets []Planet
    by      func(p1, p2 *Planet) bool // Closure used in the Less method.
}
// Len is part of sort.Interface.
func (s *planetSorter) Len() int {
    return len(s.planets)
}
// Swap is part of sort.Interface.
func (s *planetSorter) Swap(i, j int) {
    s.planets[i], s.planets[j] = s.planets[j], s.planets[i]
}
// Less is part of sort.Interface. It is implemented by calling the "by" closure in the sorter.
func (s *planetSorter) Less(i, j int) bool {
    return s.by(&s.planets[i], &s.planets[j])
}
var planets = []Planet{
    {"Mercury", 0.055, 0.4},
    {"Venus", 0.815, 0.7},
    {"Earth", 1.0, 1.0},
    {"Mars", 0.107, 1.5},
}
// ExampleSortKeys demonstrates a technique for sorting a struct type using programmable sort criteria.
func Example_sortKeys() {
    // Closures that order the Planet structure.
    name := func(p1, p2 *Planet) bool {
        return p1.name < p2.name
    }
    mass := func(p1, p2 *Planet) bool {
        return p1.mass < p2.mass
    }
    distance := func(p1, p2 *Planet) bool {
        return p1.distance < p2.distance
    }
    decreasingDistance := func(p1, p2 *Planet) bool {
        return !distance(p1, p2)
    }
    // Sort the planets by the various criteria.
    By(name).Sort(planets)
    fmt.Println("By name:", planets)
    By(mass).Sort(planets)
    fmt.Println("By mass:", planets)
    By(distance).Sort(planets)
    fmt.Println("By distance:", planets)
    By(decreasingDistance).Sort(planets)
    fmt.Println("By decreasing distance:", planets)
    // Output: By name: [{Earth 1 1} {Mars 0.107 1.5} {Mercury 0.055 0.4} {Venus 0.815 0.7}]
    // By mass: [{Mercury 0.055 0.4} {Mars 0.107 1.5} {Venus 0.815 0.7} {Earth 1 1}]
    // By distance: [{Mercury 0.055 0.4} {Venus 0.815 0.7} {Earth 1 1} {Mars 0.107 1.5}]
    // By decreasing distance: [{Mars 0.107 1.5} {Earth 1 1} {Venus 0.815 0.7} {Mercury 0.055 0.4}]
}
  • Example (SortMultiKeys):
package sort_test
import (
    "fmt"
    "sort"
)
// A Change is a record of source code changes, recording user, language, and delta size.
type Change struct {
    user     string
    language string
    lines    int
}
type lessFunc func(p1, p2 *Change) bool
// multiSorter implements the Sort interface, sorting the changes within.
type multiSorter struct {
    changes []Change
    less    []lessFunc
}
// Sort sorts the argument slice according to the less functions passed to OrderedBy.
func (ms *multiSorter) Sort(changes []Change) {
    ms.changes = changes
    sort.Sort(ms)
}
// OrderedBy returns a Sorter that sorts using the less functions, in order.
// Call its Sort method to sort the data.
func OrderedBy(less ...lessFunc) *multiSorter {
    return &multiSorter{
        less: less,
    }
}
// Len is part of sort.Interface.
func (ms *multiSorter) Len() int {
    return len(ms.changes)
}
// Swap is part of sort.Interface.
func (ms *multiSorter) Swap(i, j int) {
    ms.changes[i], ms.changes[j] = ms.changes[j], ms.changes[i]
}
// Less is part of sort.Interface. It is implemented by looping along the
// less functions until it finds a comparison that is either Less or
// !Less. Note that it can call the less functions twice per call. We
// could change the functions to return -1, 0, 1 and reduce the
// number of calls for greater efficiency: an exercise for the reader.
func (ms *multiSorter) Less(i, j int) bool {
    p, q := &ms.changes[i], &ms.changes[j]
    // Try all but the last comparison.
    var k int
    for k = 0; k < len(ms.less)-1; k++ {
        less := ms.less[k]
        switch {
        case less(p, q):
            // p < q, so we have a decision.
            return true
        case less(q, p):
            // p > q, so we have a decision.
            return false
        }
        // p == q; try the next comparison.
    }
    // All comparisons to here said "equal", so just return whatever
    // the final comparison reports.
    return ms.less[k](p, q)
}
var changes = []Change{
    {"gri", "Go", 100},
    {"ken", "C", 150},
    {"glenda", "Go", 200},
    {"rsc", "Go", 200},
    {"r", "Go", 100},
    {"ken", "Go", 200},
    {"dmr", "C", 100},
    {"r", "C", 150},
    {"gri", "Smalltalk", 80},
}
// ExampleMultiKeys demonstrates a technique for sorting a struct type using different
// sets of multiple fields in the comparison. We chain together "Less" functions, each of
// which compares a single field.
func Example_sortMultiKeys() {
    // Closures that order the Change structure.
    user := func(c1, c2 *Change) bool {
        return c1.user < c2.user
    }
    language := func(c1, c2 *Change) bool {
        return c1.language < c2.language
    }
    increasingLines := func(c1, c2 *Change) bool {
        return c1.lines < c2.lines
    }
    decreasingLines := func(c1, c2 *Change) bool {
        return c1.lines > c2.lines // Note: > orders downwards.
    }
    // Simple use: Sort by user.
    OrderedBy(user).Sort(changes)
    fmt.Println("By user:", changes)
    // More examples.
    OrderedBy(user, increasingLines).Sort(changes)
    fmt.Println("By user,<lines:", changes)
    OrderedBy(user, decreasingLines).Sort(changes)
    fmt.Println("By user,>lines:", changes)
    OrderedBy(language, increasingLines).Sort(changes)
    fmt.Println("By language,<lines:", changes)
    OrderedBy(language, increasingLines, user).Sort(changes)
    fmt.Println("By language,<lines,user:", changes)
    // Output:
    // By user: [{dmr C 100} {glenda Go 200} {gri Smalltalk 80} {gri Go 100} {ken Go 200} {ken C 150} {r Go 100} {r C 150} {rsc Go 200}]
    // By user,<lines: [{dmr C 100} {glenda Go 200} {gri Smalltalk 80} {gri Go 100} {ken C 150} {ken Go 200} {r Go 100} {r C 150} {rsc Go 200}]
    // By user,>lines: [{dmr C 100} {glenda Go 200} {gri Go 100} {gri Smalltalk 80} {ken Go 200} {ken C 150} {r C 150} {r Go 100} {rsc Go 200}]
    // By language,<lines: [{dmr C 100} {ken C 150} {r C 150} {gri Go 100} {r Go 100} {ken Go 200} {glenda Go 200} {rsc Go 200} {gri Smalltalk 80}]
    // By language,<lines,user: [{dmr C 100} {ken C 150} {r C 150} {gri Go 100} {r Go 100} {glenda Go 200} {ken Go 200} {rsc Go 200} {gri Smalltalk 80}]
}
  • Example (SortWrapper):
package sort_test
import (
    "fmt"
    "sort"
)
type Grams int
func (g Grams) String() string { return fmt.Sprintf("%dg", int(g)) }
type Organ struct {
    Name   string
    Weight Grams
}
type Organs []*Organ
func (s Organs) Len() int      { return len(s) }
func (s Organs) Swap(i, j int) { s[i], s[j] = s[j], s[i] }
// ByName implements sort.Interface by providing Less and using the Len and
// Swap methods of the embedded Organs value.
type ByName struct{ Organs }
func (s ByName) Less(i, j int) bool { return s.Organs[i].Name < s.Organs[j].Name }
// ByWeight implements sort.Interface by providing Less and using the Len and
// Swap methods of the embedded Organs value.
type ByWeight struct{ Organs }
func (s ByWeight) Less(i, j int) bool { return s.Organs[i].Weight < s.Organs[j].Weight }
func Example_sortWrapper() {
    s := []*Organ{
        {"brain", 1340},
        {"heart", 290},
        {"liver", 1494},
        {"pancreas", 131},
        {"prostate", 62},
        {"spleen", 162},
    }
    sort.Sort(ByWeight{s})
    fmt.Println("Organs by weight:")
    printOrgans(s)
    sort.Sort(ByName{s})
    fmt.Println("Organs by name:")
    printOrgans(s)
    // Output:
    // Organs by weight:
    // prostate (62g)
    // pancreas (131g)
    // spleen   (162g)
    // heart    (290g)
    // brain    (1340g)
    // liver    (1494g)
    // Organs by name:
    // brain    (1340g)
    // heart    (290g)
    // liver    (1494g)
    // pancreas (131g)
    // prostate (62g)
    // spleen   (162g)
}
func printOrgans(s []*Organ) {
    for _, o := range s {
        fmt.Printf("%-8s (%v)\n", o.Name, o.Weight)
    }
}

二、包总览

相关类型 

type Interface
type IntSlice
func (p IntSlice) Len() int
func (p IntSlice) Less(i, j int) bool
func (p IntSlice) Search(x int) int
func (p IntSlice) Sort()
func (p IntSlice) Swap(i, j int)
type Float64Slice
func (p Float64Slice) Len() int
func (p Float64Slice) Less(i, j int) bool
func (p Float64Slice) Search(x float64) int
func (p Float64Slice) Sort()
func (p Float64Slice) Swap(i, j int)
type StringSlice
func (p StringSlice) Len() int
func (p StringSlice) Less(i, j int) bool
func (p StringSlice) Search(x string) int
func (p StringSlice) Sort()
func (p StringSlice) Swap(i, j int)

相关函数 

func Ints(a []int)
func IntsAreSorted(a []int) bool
func SearchInts(a []int, x int) int
func Float64s(a []float64)
func Float64sAreSorted(a []float64) bool
func SearchFloat64s(a []float64, x float64) int
func Strings(a []string)
func StringsAreSorted(a []string) bool
func SearchStrings(a []string, x string) int
func Sort(data Interface)
func Stable(data Interface)
func Reverse(data Interface) Interface
func IsSorted(data Interface) bool
func Search(n int, f func(int) bool) int

三、type Interface

  • 一个满足sort.Interface接口的(集合)类型可以被本包的函数进行排序。方法要求集合中的元素可以被整数索引
type Interface interface {
    // Len方法返回集合中的元素个数
    Len() int
    // Less方法报告索引i的元素是否比索引j的元素小
    Less(i, j int) bool
    // Swap方法交换索引i和j的两个元素
    Swap(i, j int)
}

四、type IntSlice

  • ntSlice给[]int添加方法以满足Interface接口,以便排序为递增序列
type IntSlice []int

相关方法

func (p IntSlice) Len() int
func (p IntSlice) Less(i, j int) bool
func (p IntSlice) Search(x int) int

// Sort等价于调用Sort(p)
func (p IntSlice) Sort()

// Search等价于调用SearchInts(p, x)
func (p IntSlice) Swap(i, j int)

五、type Float64Slice

  • Float64Slice给[]float64添加方法以满足Interface接口,以便排序为递增序列
type Float64Slice []float64

相关方法 


func (p Float64Slice) Len() int
func (p Float64Slice) Less(i, j int) bool
func (p Float64Slice) Search(x float64) int

// Sort等价于调用Sort(p)
func (p Float64Slice) Sort()

// Search等价于调用SearchFloat64s(p, x)
func (p Float64Slice) Swap(i, j int)

六、type StringSlice

  • StringSlice给[]string添加方法以满足Interface接口,以便排序为递增序列
type StringSlice []string

相关方法

func (p StringSlice) Len() int
func (p StringSlice) Less(i, j int) bool
func (p StringSlice) Search(x string) int

// Sort等价于调用Sort(p)
func (p StringSlice) Sort()

// Search等价于调用SearchStrings(p, x)
func (p StringSlice) Swap(i, j int)

七、相关函数

func Sort

func Sort(data Interface)
  • Sort排序data。它调用1次data.Len确定长度,调用O(n*log(n))次data.Less和data.Swap。本函数不能保证排序的稳定性(即不保证相等元素的相对次序不变)

func Stable

func Stable(data Interface)
  • Stable排序data,并保证排序的稳定性,相等元素的相对次序不变
  • 它调用1次data.Len,O(n*log(n))次data.Less和O(n*log(n)*log(n))次data.Swap

func IsSorted

func IsSorted(data Interface) bool
  • IsSorted报告data是否已经被排序

func Reverse

func Reverse(data Interface) Interface
  • Reverse包装一个Interface接口并返回一个新的Interface接口,对该接口排序可生成递减序列
  • 演示案例
s := []int{5, 2, 6, 3, 1, 4} // unsorted
sort.Sort(sort.Reverse(sort.IntSlice(s)))
fmt.Println(s)

func Search

func Search(n int, f func(int) bool) int
  • Search函数采用二分法搜索找到[0, n)区间内最小的满足f(i)==true的值i。也就是说,Search函数希望f在输入位于区间[0, n)的前面某部分(可以为空)时返回假,而在输入位于剩余至结尾的部分(可以为空)时返回真;Search函数会返回满足f(i)==true的最小值i。如果没有该值,函数会返回n。注意,未找到时的返回值不是-1,这一点和strings.Index等函数不同。Search函数只会用区间[0, n)内的值调用f
  • 一般使用Search找到值x在插入一个有序的、可索引的数据结构时,应插入的位置。这种情况下,参数f(通常是闭包)会捕捉应搜索的值和被查询的数据集
  • 例如,给定一个递增顺序的切片,调用Search(len(data), func(i int) bool { return data[i] >= 23 })会返回data中最小的索引i满足data[i] >= 23。如果调用者想要知道23是否在切片里,它必须另外检查data[i] == 23
  • 搜索递减顺序的数据时,应使用<=运算符代替>=运算符
  • 下列代码尝试在一个递增顺序的整数切片中找到值x:
x := 23
i := sort.Search(len(data), func(i int) bool { return data[i] >= x })
if i < len(data) && data[i] == x {
	// x is present at data[i]
} else {
	// x is not present in data,
	// but i is the index where it would be inserted.
}
  • 一个更古怪的例子,下面的程序会猜测你持有的数字:
func GuessingGame() {
	var s string
	fmt.Printf("Pick an integer from 0 to 100.\n")
	answer := sort.Search(100, func(i int) bool {
		fmt.Printf("Is your number <= %d? ", i)
		fmt.Scanf("%s", &s)
		return s != "" && s[0] == 'y'
	})
	fmt.Printf("Your number is %d.\n", answer)
}

func Ints

func Ints(a []int)
  • Ints函数将a排序为递增顺序
  • 演示案例
s := []int{5, 2, 6, 3, 1, 4} // unsorted
sort.Ints(s)
fmt.Println(s)

func IntsAreSorted

func IntsAreSorted(a []int) bool
  • IntsAreSorted检查a是否已排序为递增顺序

func SearchInts

func SearchInts(a []int, x int) int
  • SearchInts在递增顺序的a中搜索x,返回x的索引。如果查找不到,返回值是x应该插入a的位置(以保证a的递增顺序),返回值可以是len(a)

func Float64s

func Float64s(a []float64)
  • Float64s函数将a排序为递增顺序

func Float64sAreSorted

func Float64sAreSorted(a []float64) bool
  • Float64sAreSorted检查a是否已排序为递增顺序

func SearchFloat64s

func SearchFloat64s(a []float64, x float64) int
  • SearchFloat64s在递增顺序的a中搜索x,返回x的索引。如果查找不到,返回值是x应该插入a的位置(以保证a的递增顺序),返回值可以是len(a)

func Strings

func Strings(a []string)
  • Strings函数将a排序为递增顺序

func StringsAreSorted

func StringsAreSorted(a []string) bool
  • StringsAreSorted检查a是否已排序为递增顺序

func SearchStrings

func SearchStrings(a []string, x string) int
  • SearchStrings在递增顺序的a中搜索x,返回x的索引。如果查找不到,返回值是x应该插入a的位置(以保证a的递增顺序),返回值可以是len(a)
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